Fundamental Principles of 

AGRICULTURAL

Engineering Practice



​Book description

This book is in no doubt a good material to all students of agricultural engineering in training to become engineers. An insight into the advances which have been made and currently in progress provided a strong base for a review of the curriculum in order to catch up with the global trends in agricultural engineering revolution in Nigeria. For the ever increasing population, the drudgeries involved in food production, losses in crop handling, processing and the increasing expectation of food products of high quality coupled with global safety standards, machine maneuverability, etc. has called for the development of accurate, fast and objective quality determination of the characteristics of food and agricultural products and guardian systems in machines (automated systems).

Non-destructive and cost effective techniques such as computer vision and image analysis have been employed in sorting agricultural products during handling processes and commercial purposes. Adapting these growing trends to agricultural (crops) and food production and processing industries in Nigeria will open more opportunities to young engineers in the energy technology (ICT) world in ensuring survival is addressed in this revised version of the book. Therefore, it is a good material for engineering students yearning for broad-based knowledge of the rich life-supporting and challenging technological processes involved in agricultural engineering operations.

​Table of contents

Dedication  3

Acknowledgements  4

Table of content 5

CHAPTER ONE        Agricultural engineering development  11        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Engineering profession  11

Engineering regulation  11

The engineering oath  13

Evolution of agricultural engineering in Nigeria  14

Institutional regulatory bodies (NUC and NBTE) 16

Notable agricultural engineering bodies outside Nigeria  16

Advancements is agricultural engineering specialization  19

Practice questions  25

Further reading   25

CHAPTER TWO          Mechanization and cost concepts   26        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Introduction  26

Objectives of mechanization  30

Benefits of mechanization  31

Problems of mechanization  31

Appropriate mechanization  32

Motorization  32

Optimum mechanization  33

Engineering management and planning   34

Management of engineering utilities  37

Operating costs (variable costs) 39

Timeliness costs  43

Practice questions  43

Further reading   44

CHAPTER THREE          Farm power resources and development  46        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Farm power resources  46

Human power resources  46

Animal draught power resources  48

Mechanical power resources  48

Renewable energy sources  50

Utilization of power on the farm    52

Fundamentals of agricultural tractor 53

Considerations in tractor procurement 59

Fundamentals of engine  60

Engine systems classification  60

Engine operating systems  68

Tractor auxiliary systems  75

Practice questions  81

Further reading   82

CHAPTER FOUR          Surveying and land clearing development  83        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Fundamentals of surveying   83

Land clearing   88

Factors affecting extent of land clearing   88

Factors affecting the choice of land clearing   89

Land clearing attachments and detachable  90

Land form and development 97

Practice questions  98

Further reading   99

CHAPTER FIVE         Farmstead planning and waste management  100        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Special requirements of farm houses  101

Farm stead planning and farm layout 102

Farmstead planning   102

Building requirement 106

Waste water management system    109

Best waste management practices  112

Lagoons  112

Earthen embankments for animal liquid-waste containment 113

Livestock housing   114

Animal behaviour and building design  114

Rabbit housing   120

Animal handling and treatment structures  121

Practice questions  125

Further reading   126

CHAPTER SIX         Soil and water resources management  127        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Soil conservation [management] 127

Erosion soil loss (erosion) control 128

Crop water supply (irrigation) 134

Excess water removal (drainage) 135

Soil moisture conservation  135

Agricultural water resources development 136

Soil water relationships  137

Sources of agricultural water 138

Surface water 138

Groundwater 138

Wells and borehole  139

Types of well 140

Purpose of dam development 141

Feasibility studies of dam development 142

Selection of type of dam    142

Forces on dam    143

Design criteria of gravity dam    145

Causes of earth dam failure  146

Control structures for seepage in earth dams  149

Reservoir and its physical characteristics  150

Hydraulics of open channel flow   152

Hydraulic of pressure conduits  153

Forces acting on a pipe  157

Conveyance of irrigation and drainage water 157

Practice questions  166

Further reading   166

CHAPTER SEVEN                Farm machinery   168        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Development of farm machinery  168

Agricultural machinery manufacturing   169

Agricultural machinery situation in Nigeria  171

Agricultural machinery manufacturing spread in Nigeria  171

Management of agricultural machinery  172

Maintenance of agricultural machinery  173

Cost factor in machinery management 174

Facets of machinery management 174

Agricultural machinery in farm operations  175

Practice questions  177

Further reading   177

CHAPTER EIGHT           Land preparation and soil behaviour  179        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Tillage  179

Mechanical behaviour of agricultural soils  179

Soil dynamics and tillage relations  181

Tillage practices  187

Conventional tillage  187

Primary tillage practices  187

Primary tillage tools  187

Secondary tillage practices  189

Secondary tillage tools  190

Tillage tool carrier and clamps  195

Conservation tillage  195

Practice questions  196

Further reading   196

CHAPTER NINE          Planting and post planting practices   198        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Seeders and planters  199

Transplanting   205

Thinning   206

Fertilizer application  207

Fertilizer application equipment 207

Pest and weed control 209

Crop protection equipment 214

Practice questions  218

Further reading   218

CHAPTER TEN                Principles of irrigation and drainage   220        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Sources and quality of irrigation water 220

Water requirement and irrigation efficiency  221

Planning and selection of irrigation system    225

Classification of sprinkler system    233

Design considerations of field layout for surface systems  243

Design of furrow irrigation layout 243

Design of border strip irrigation  244

Sprinkler systems design  244

Drip irrigation system components  250

Stage investigations in drainage systems  251

Types of drainage systems  253

Flood control 255

Practice questions  255

Further reading   256

CHAPTER ELEVEN                Crop harvest and handling   258        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Introduction  258

Crop harvest 258

Fruit harvest 258

Handling of agricultural products at harvest 259

Harvesting agricultural materials  260

Mechanical harvest 262

Combine harvester 262

Types of combines  264

Special combines  265

Practice questions  267

Further reading   267

CHAPTER TWELVE          Properties of agricultural materials   268        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Agricultural materials  268

Properties of agricultural materials  269

Biological properties  269

Description and applications of biological properties of agricultural materials  269

Engineering properties of agricultural materials  269

Background study of rheology  273

Physical and rheological properties of forage crops  274

Causes and effects of damage  274

Practice questions  275

Further reading   275

CHAPTER THIRTEEN          Processing of agricultural materials   276        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Cutting of agricultural material 276

Cutting methods  276

Size reduction of agricultural materials  279

Mixing of agricultural materials  285

Drying of agricultural materials  285

Drying processes in agricultural materials  288

Artificial drying   290

Cooling of agricultural products  292

Types of cooling   293

Wavering and pressing of agricultural materials  295

Dewatering of agricultural material 298

Oil expression and extraction machines  299

Agricultural residues and processing machines  300

Grain handling equipment 305

Rice processing machines  307

Potato destoner  with prewasher 309

Fruit and vegetable processing machines  312

Types of conveyors  315

Animal products processing technology and equipment 317

Agricultural fiber processing and equipment 319

Practice questions  321

Further reading   322

CHAPTER FOURTEEN         Postharvest operations   324        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Quality of agricultural products  324

Storage of agricultural materials  331

Temporary storage for fertilizer, bagged seed, etc. 332

Storage bins  335

Grain flow analysis in storage bins  337

Rectangular multipurpose buildings  339

Hay and straw storage  339

Fruits and vegetable storage  339

Postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables  343

Fruit and vegetable handling systems and packaging   344

Fruit and vegetable postharvest operations  344

Fruit and vegetable processing technologies  348

Equipment for physical processes (unit operations) 353

New postharvest opportunities and advances  358

Practice questions  359

Further reading   360

CHAPTER FIFTEEN         Automotive power and farm transport  362        ​​N399.00  ($1)

Vehicle guidance in precision agriculture  366

Types of guardian systems (sensing systems) 367

Future of automatic guidance  369

Farm transportation standards and specification  372

Practice questions  374

Further reading  374

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