Fruits and Vegetable Technologies



Book description

This book was written to provide the students with a good understanding in fruits and vegetables handling, processing, and technological advances in preservation of fruits and vegetable from harvest till it gets to the consumer table or ended at the store shelf as finished products. Fruits and vegetables surfers the highest degree of deterioration at all levels of technological involvement right from maturity till shelving. This book is therefore packaged to advance knowledge and increase understanding of the nature of the fruits and vegetables in order to match up the principles and techniques of crops handling, processing and storage in order to minimize post-harvest losses.

​Table of content

Preface. xii

INTRODUCTION.. xvi

PART 1                 CONCEPTS OF FRUITS & VEGETABLE HANDLING.. xix

CHAPTER 1       Properties of Fruits and Vegetable. 3      ​N399.00  ($1)

1.       Introduction. 3

1.1          Fruits. 3

1.2          Type fruits. 4

1.2.1      Fleshy or wet fruits. 4

1.2.2      Dry fruits. 17

1.2.3      Dried fruits. 19

1.3          Tropical fruits. 21

1.4          Vegetables. 22

1.5          Importance of fruits and vegetables. 27

1.6          Nutritional content of fruits and vegetables. 27

1.7          Comparison between fruit and vegetable. 28

1.8          Fruit development and growth regulator 29

1.8.1      Relevant engineering aspects of growth regulators. 29

1.9          Fruit market 33

CHAPTER 2  Fruits and Vegetable Harvest Technologies. 34     ​N399.00  ($1)

2        Introduction. 34

2.1          Factors affecting changes in fruits and vegetable. 34

2.2          Maturity in fruits and vegetable. 37

2.2.1      Maturity index and measurement 38

2.3          Ripeness. 41

2.4          Fruits and vegetable harvest technologies. 44

2.5          Time of harvest factors. 44

2.6          Harvest time (picking time) and harvest handling.. 49

2.7          Fruit harvest technologies. 49

2.7.1      Hand picking technology. 49

2.7.2      Mechanical method of fruit and vegetable harvest 52

2.8          Harvest effect on postharvest quality. 54

2.9          Mechanical damage. 54

2.10        Chilling injury. 58

Chapter 3       Fruits & Vegetable Quality Measurement 61         ​N399.00  ($1)

3.       Introduction. 61

3.1          Meaning of quality. 61

3.2          Quality needs of fruit and vegetable. 62

3.3          Quality change prediction and maintenance in fruit and vegetable. 62

3.4          Fruit quality indicators. 63

3.5          Methods for determining quality of fresh commodities. 63

3.6          Factors affecting quality preservation of fresh commodities. 68

3.7          Quality measurement of fresh commodities. 68

3.7.1      Destructive methods. 69

3.7.2      Nondestructive methods. 73

3.8          Fruit firmness and its measurement 75

​3.8.1        Fruit firmness instruments. 77

​3.8.2        Measuring soluble solids content (ssc) in fruits. 80

​3.8.3        Fruit titratable acidity. 81

​3.8.4        Maintenance of quality/quality assurance. 81

​3.8.5        Types of products contaminants. 84

​3.8.6        Cosmetic appearance. 84

PART 2                 POSTHARVEST SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGIES.. 85

CHAPTER 4       Postharvest Management Options. 86          ​N399.00  ($1)

4.       Introduction. 86

4.1          Postharvest practices. 87

4.1.1      Transfer from field bin to reception. 87

4.1.2      Product cooling at reception. 88

4.1.3      Sorting & grading.. 89

4.1.4      Packaging & labeling.. 94

4.1.5      Quality control checks. 95

4.2          Postharvest management options. 95

CHAPTER 5       Postharvest Management Systems in the Tropics. 106          ​N399.00  ($1)

5.       Introduction. 106

5.1          Postharvest changes in fruits and vegetables. 106

5.2          Crop losses in the tropics. 107

5.3          Postharvest challenges in the tropics. 108

5.5          Challenges to postharvest technology development 112

5.6          Solutions to challenges of postharvest technology development 114

5.7          The role of agricultural engineers in postharvest development 115

5.8          Future prospects and opportunities in postharvest development 115

CHAPTER 6       Products Deterioration and Storage Systems. 117          ​N399.00  ($1)

6.       Introduction. 117

6.1          Factors affecting of products deterioration. 117

6.2          Factors affecting stored products deterioration. 120

6.2.1.          Influence of temperature. 121

6.2.2.          Influence of relative humidity. 122

6.3.         Postharvest storage systems. 123

6.4.         Postharvest storage conditions for selected fruits and vegetables. 125

6.5.         Fruits and vegetable packaging.. 129

6.5.1.          Properties of packaging materials. 129

6.5.2.          Fruits and vegetable packaging materials. 131

6.6.         Effect of storage and packaging on food.. 141

6.7.         Storage of horticultural crops. 141

6.7.1.          Storage practices. 142

6.7.2.          Fresh vegetable storage. 143

6.8.         Storage structures for horticultural crops. 144

6.9.         Transportation of horticultural crops. 152

CHAPTER 7    Technological Processes for Fruits and Vegetables. 157        ​N399.00  ($1)

7.       Introduction. 157

7.1          Objectives of fruit and vegetable technological processes. 157

7.2          Technological fruits and vegetable processes. 158

7.3          Technological process operations for fruits and vegetables. 172

7.3.1      Pre-processing procedures. 172

7.3.2      Temporary storage of (fresh) fruit 179

7.4          Fruit and vegetable processing technologies. 180

7.4.1      Drying and dehydration technology. 180

7.4.2      Processing of fruit bars. 181

7.4.3      Osmotic dehydration in fruit processing.. 182

7.4.4      Technology of semi-processed fruit products. 185

7.4.5      Technology of “fruit in syrup” products. 185

7.4.6      Technology for fruit juice. 186

7.5          Recent trends in fruit processing.. 189

7.6          Introduction to food preservation. 191

Bblography.. 192

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