​ABET

FCA, ISHIAGU

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE ISHIAGU

Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology

Mechanization for enhanced agriculture

​​lecture ​notes

on


Agricultural & Bioenvironmental Engineering Education


Download free notes PDF documents on agricultural & bioenvironmental engineering education, agricultural mechanization, agricultural machinery design, management and safety here. 

A synopsis of each course ​in html provide a ​guide to students ​for effective study.

​​​​​Industrial Safety

Industrial safety [MEP 322]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

Higher National Diploma (HND I)

Course lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the student with industrial safety rules, acts and regulations guiding safety within industrial sector as well as know the causes and ways of preventing industrial accidents.This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of assignment sheets and unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy. On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  • Understand what is safety, hazards and industrial safety
  • Understand safety inspection and audit
  • Understand the importance of safety and safety inspection in industry
  • Know general factory safety rules, acts and regulations
  • Understand accident and accident prevention
  • Know the causes and ways of preventing industrial accidents not caused by fire
  • Know classes, causes and fire  prevention methods
  • Appreciate the various causes and fire prevention in industry
  • Know the various methods and proceedings in fire fighting
  • Appreciate the factories act and the principles involved in factory law

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2012: Workplace Hazards: Risks & Control. https://www.createspace.com/3865653    June 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery Hazards: Hazards & Safety Practices. (Full colour edition). https://www.createspace.com/3498621  May 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery Hazards & Safety Practices (Black & white edition). https://www.createspace.com/3728177  May 2012
  • Bello R. S. and Mijinyawa Y. I. (2010): An assessment of Injuries in Small Scale Sawmill Industry of South Western Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development. Agric Eng Int: CIGR URL: www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1558/1293
  • List 1-4 available @: http://www.amazon.com/Segun-R.-Bello/e/B008AL6RI0

Suggested activities

  1. Student should be able to identify and describe the features of various workshops available in their domain.
  2. Students should carry out workshop inspection in two of the identified workshops and make a list of different safety provisions. Make comparison of the level of compliance with known standards.
  3. Carry out safety audit of specific workshop
  4. Students should design safety decals, signs or symbol for identified hazard environment.

​​Technical Drawing

Technical ​Drawing [​PTD 110/MEC 112]

COURSE LECTURER: Bello R. S.

Duration: 60 hours (4 hours practical per week)

Goal: To develop the ability to produce accurate, correctly dimensioned and labelled engineering drawings

General objectives: On completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  1. Know different drawing instruments, equipment and materials used in technical drawing: Students should be able to identify the different types of drawing instruments, equipment and materials; outline the uses of the various instruments, equipment and materials; state the precautions necessary to preserve and use each of the items identified above as well as maintain the various instruments and equipment.
  2. Know graphical communication: Explain graphics and the different types of graphic present; illustrate the various convention present in graphical productions of construction lines, finished lines, hidden and overhead details projections, center lines, break lines, dimensioning of plane, elevation and sections of objects; layout of drawing sheets with the following (a) margins (b) title block etc. State the various standards of drawing sheets; print letters and figures of various forms and characters; illustrate conventional signs, symbols and appropriate lettering characters.
  3. Know the construction of simple geometrical figures and shapes: Explain the purpose of geometrical construction in drawing parallel; construct parallel and perpendicular lines; construct and bisect lines, angles and areas; divide a straight line into given number of equal parts; identify polygons (regular or irregular); construct regular polygons with n sides in a given circle, given (a) distance across flats (b) distance across corners; define a circle; explain the properties of a circle, e.g. Radius, diameter, normal, tangent, circumference etc.; carry out simple geometrical constructions on circles e.g. (a) diameter of a circle of a circle of a given circumference. (b) the circumference to a circle of a given diameter (c) a circle to pass through 3 points (d) a circle to pass through 2 points and touch a given line (e) a circle to touch a given smaller circle and a given line (f) tangents to circles at various points (g) an arc of radius tangent to two lines at an angle to less than and more than 90 (h) an are externally tangent to two circles (i) inscribing and circumscribing circles; define an ellipse; construct ellipse by using (a) trammel method (b) concentric circle method; explain the following draughting techniques (a) projection method (b) measurement method (c) transposition method; construct plane scales and diagonal scales, using appropriate instruments.
  4. Know isometric and oblique protections: Explain isometric and oblique projections; draw a square in isometric and oblique forms; draw a circle in isometric and oblique forms; draw an ellipse in isometric and oblique forms; draw a polygon with a minimum of eight sides in isometric and oblique forms; dimension holes, circles, arcs and angles correctly on isometric and obliques; use appropriate convention symbols and abbreviations.
  5. Know single orthographic projections: Explain the principle of orthographic projection; illustrate the principle planes of projection (a) vertical plane (b) horizontal plane; explain why the first and third angles are used and the second and fourth angles not used; project views of three-dimensional objects on to the basic planes of projection in both first and third angle to obtain (a) the front view or elevation (b) the top view or plan.
  6. Understand the interactions of regular solids: Explain interpretation or intersections of solids; draw the lines of intersections of the following regular solids and planes in both first and third angles; a. Two square-prisms meeting at right angles, b. Two dissimilar square prisms meeting at an angle, c. Two dissimilar square prisms meeting to an angle, d. A hexagonal prism meeting a square prism at right angles., e. Two dissimilar cylinders meeting at an angle; two dissimilar cylinders meeting at right angle, their centers not being in the same vertical plane.

Download PDF

​​​​​​​​Horticultural Machinery

Horticultural machinery [HLT 443]

Department of Horticultural & Landscape Technology

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

Technological advancements and innovations in horticultural practice have revolutionized this age long profession and have in turn provided comfort and luxury for the operators and investors. This course is designed to provide the students with a good understanding of the various horticultural fields of specialization, practices, tools, machinery and utilization. This course is also designed to acquaint the students with various power sources, required machinery and necessary skills for effective horticultural mechanization.         

Specific objectives and competencies

On completion of this course, the students should be able to;

  • To know various aspects of horticulture and gardening, career opportunities in horticulture and gardening
  • To identify different gardening tools, classification, description, selection and utilization.
  • To identify different horticultural tractors and differences from agricultural tractors
  • Introduction to various horticultural machines, descriptions, utilization, and operations
  • Introduction to tools and equipment preparation for field operation, hand tool and machine safety rules, horticultural tractor operation and safety,
  • To know tips for tools and equipment sterilization, sterilization agents and applications

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2013: Horticultural Machinery: Equipment and safety. Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-148-497-487-2 https://www.createspace.com/4284225   Sept 2012 (216 pages)
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Engineering: Principles and Practice (Vol 2). Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-145-633-568-7 URL: https://www.createspace.com/3498612 Sept 2012 (390 pages)

Suggested activities

Identify all horticultural machinery in your institution.

Carry out maintenance on selected horticultural machinery in your institution

Calibrate some of specified equipment for field operation

Make a report of activities carried out.

​​​​Technical Report Writing

Technical Report writing [ABE 227]

COURSE LECTURER: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the students with the meaning types and purposes of technical reports and to provide them with the necessary skills for effectively writing a technical report.

Specific objectives and competencies

On completion of this course, the students should be able to understand;

  • The meaning, purpose and types of technical report
  • The contents of a technical report and
  • The skills involved in writing a technical report

Reference materials

  1. Technical writing - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_writing

  2. Guide: Engineering Technical Reports https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=88

  3. Guide to Technical Report Writing: Study guides: ...: School of ... www.sussex.ac.uk/ei/internal /forstudents/engineeringdesign/.../techreportwriting

  4. Technical writing VS Non-technical writing and writing for l by Alyssa ... https://prezi.com/.../technical-writing-vs-non-technical-writing-and-writing-for-l/

  5. What is technical proposal? definition and meaning ... www.businessdictionary.com/ definition/technical-proposal.html

  6. How to Write a Design Report - Department of Mechanical Engineering www.me.umn.edu/education/ undergraduate/writing/How-to-write-a-Design-Report.pdf

  7. Technical communication - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_communication

  8. ​Bello R. S., & Onyechere, Gladys, 2013. Assessment of the impacts of agricultural mechanization on agricultural production in Umuahia North Local Government Area, Abia State. (ND thesis, Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, 2013), 36-37
  9. CIGR, 2007. Manuscript Style Guidelines © 2007 CIGR
    Last Updated: 03/15/2015 13:07:1306/08/2009 12:37:20 | W3C Validated http://www.cigr.org/index.html

Suggested activities

  1. Students to produce a brief technical report from a list of topics
  2. Write a brief  results/findings, summary and the inferences of a typical work done

​​​​​​​Post-harvest Technology

Post-harvest Technology [AGT 128]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

National Diploma (ND I)

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objectives

This course is designed to give the students a good knowledge of the importance, procedures, equipment and problems of processing, handling and storage of agricultural products.         

Specific objectives and competencies.

On completion of this course, the students should be able to;

  1. Understand the unique characteristics of biological materials that influence processing handling and storage of agricultural products.
  2. Understand cleaning, sorting and separation of biological materials.
  3. Understand the principles and methods of milling, shelling and decortications.
  4. Understand the methods of drying of biological materials.
  5. Understand the methods of storage and preservation of agricultural produce.

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2013. Fruits and Vegetable Technologies: Management Options. Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-149-047-910-197-8. Available online URL:https://www.createspace.com/4329868.
  • Bello R. S., Adegbulugbe T. A. and Odey S. O., 2010: Farm Power and Machinery Climax Printers, Enugu Nigeria ISBN: 978-332-2-254-4-3
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Engineering: Principles and Practice (Vol 1). Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-147-931-614-4. Available online URL:https://www.createspace.com/3996235.
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Engineering: Principles and Practice (Vol 2). Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-145-633-568-7. Available online URL: https://www.createspace.com/3498612.
  • Sobowale A., 2012. Farm Structures. Lecture note on AGE 507. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Ogun Nigeria. Date modified 10/06/2012
  • All available @: http://www.amazon.com/Segun-R.-Bello/e/B008AL6RI0

​​​​​​​Theory of Machine Elements

Theory of machine elements [ABP 313]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

Higher National Diploma (HND I)

Course lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the working knowledge of the approach to the theories of machine elements.This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of assignment sheets and unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy. On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  1. Understand machine elements and sources of machine elements.
  2. Understand the principles of  power transmission and various power transmission elements
  3. Understand the principles of operation of different types of friction drives, belt drive, shafts and coupling, etc.
  4. Know general principles of operation different types of gear systems e.g. Spur - gear, level gear, worm gear etc.
  5. Know general principles of operation different types of hydraulic power transmission elements such as clutches; plate-type, cone-type, slip-clutch, air- actuated type etc. and brake systems in use e.g., friction type, plate type, cone type etc.
  6. Know properties of lubricants and types of lubricants commonly used in machines e.g. Oil, grease oil must solid lubricants.

Joints in machine operation

Reference materials

​Safety [Basic introduction]

Safety [MEC 125]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

National Diploma (ND I)

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the safety rules, acts and regulations guiding workplace and machinery operations.This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of assignment sheets and unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy.

Specific objectives and competencies

On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  • Understand what is safety, hazards and different categories of hazard
  • Know general workshop and factory safety rules, acts and regulations
  • Understand safety inspection and audit
  • Understand accident prevention
  • Know classes, causes and fire  prevention methods
  • Understand manual handling procedures
  • Understand maintenance safety.
  • Understand various first aid methods.

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2012: Workshop Technology & Practice. Pub by Createspace 7290 B. Investment Drive Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-147-928-308-8 URL: https://www.createspace.com/3982311  Sept 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Workplace Hazards: Risks & Control. Pub by Createspace 7290 B. Investment Drive Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-147-528-554-3. https://www.createspace.com/3865653    June 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery Hazards: Hazards & Safety Practices. (Full colour edition). Pub by Createspace 7290 B. Investment Drive Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-146-790-718-7. https://www.createspace.com/3498621  May 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery Hazards & Safety Practices (Black & white edition). Pub by Createspace 7290 B. Investment Drive Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-147-753-664-3. https://www.createspace.com/3728177  May 2012

List 1-4 available @: http://www.amazon.com/Segun-R.-Bello/e/B008AL6RI0

Suggested activities

  1. Student should be able to identify and describe the features of various workshops available in their domain.
  2. Students should carry out workshop inspection in two of the identified workshops and make a list of different safety provisions. Make comparison of the level of compliance with known standards.
  3. Carry out safety audit of specific workshop
  4. Students should design safety decals, signs or symbol for identified hazard environment.

​​​Basic Workshop Technology

Technical drawing [MEC 112]

C​ourse ​Lecturer: Engr. Bello RS

Duration: 60 hours (4 hours practical per week)

Goal

To develop the ability to produce accurate, correctly dimensioned and labelled engineering drawings

General objectives

On completion of this module, the student should be able to:

  1. Know different drawing instruments, equipment and materials used in technical drawing: Students should be able to identify the different types of drawing instruments, equipment and materials; outline the uses of the various instruments, equipment and materials; state the precautions necessary to preserve and use each of the items identified above as well as maintain the various instruments and equipment.
  2. Know graphical communication: Explain graphics and the different types of graphic present; illustrate the various convention present in graphical productions of construction lines, finished lines, hidden and overhead details projections, center lines, break lines, dimensioning of plane, elevation and sections of objects; layout of drawing sheets with the following (a) margins (b) title block etc. State the various standards of drawing sheets; print letters and figures of various forms and characters; illustrate conventional signs, symbols and appropriate lettering characters.
  3. Know the construction of simple geometrical figures and shapes: Explain the purpose of geometrical construction in drawing parallel; construct parallel and perpendicular lines; construct and bisect lines, angles and areas; divide a straight line into given number of equal parts; identify polygons (regular or irregular); construct regular polygons with n sides in a given circle, given (a) distance across flats (b) distance across corners; define a circle; explain the properties of a circle, e.g. Radius, diameter, normal, tangent, circumference etc.; carry out simple geometrical constructions on circles e.g. (a) diameter of a circle of a circle of a given circumference. (b) the circumference to a circle of a given diameter (c) a circle to pass through 3 points (d) a circle to pass through 2 points and touch a given line (e) a circle to touch a given smaller circle and a given line (f) tangents to circles at various points (g) an arc of radius tangent to two lines at an angle to less than and more than 90 (h) an are externally tangent to two circles (i) inscribing and circumscribing circles; define an ellipse; construct ellipse by using (a) trammel method (b) concentric circle method; explain the following draughting techniques (a) projection method (b) measurement method (c) transposition method; construct plane scales and diagonal scales, using appropriate instruments.
  4. Know isometric and oblique protections: Explain isometric and oblique projections; draw a square in isometric and oblique forms; draw a circle in isometric and oblique forms; draw an ellipse in isometric and oblique forms; draw a polygon with a minimum of eight sides in isometric and oblique forms; dimension holes, circles, arcs and angles correctly on isometric and obliques; use appropriate convention symbols and abbreviations.
  5. Know single orthographic projections: Explain the principle of orthographic projection; illustrate the principle planes of projection (a) vertical plane (b) horizontal plane; explain why the first and third angles are used and the second and fourth angles not used; project views of three-dimensional objects on to the basic planes of projection in both first and third angle to obtain (a) the front view or elevation (b) the top view or plan.
  6. Understand the interactions of regular solids: Explain interpretation or intersections of solids; draw the lines of intersections of the following regular solids and planes in both first and third angles; a. Two square-prisms meeting at right angles, b. Two dissimilar square prisms meeting at an angle, c. Two dissimilar square prisms meeting to an angle, d. A hexagonal prism meeting a square prism at right angles., e. Two dissimilar cylinders meeting at an angle; two dissimilar cylinders meeting at right angle, their centers not being in the same vertical plane.

​​Farm Power and Mechanization

Farm Power & Mechanization [AGT 223]

Department of Agricultural Technology

National Diploma (ND II)

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the students with the sources of farm power, required machinery and to provide them with the necessary skills for effective mechanization         

Specific objectives and competencies

On completion of this course, the students should be able to;

  • To know various sources of power on the farm
  • To know Various Soil tillage practices and machinery involved
  • To know the principles of I.C. engines; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine systems - fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust;
  • To know different tractors and power tillers - type, selection, maintenance and repair;
  • To know the three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations; mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; human engineering and safety in tractor design;
  • To know functional requirements of power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport of agricultural machinery and equipment

Reference materials

Suggested activities

  1. Determine the number of farm power units and equipment available in your institutional engineering farm/work station.
  2. Observe each machine in operation and compare with traditional/ conventional agricultural practices predominant in your locality
  3. Make a report of activities carried out.

​Farm Machinery & Mechanization I

Farm Machinery & Mechanization I [ABE 112]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

National Diploma (ND I)

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

After completion of this unit, students should be acquaint with the principles of farm machinery and mechanisation and to equip them with the necessary skills for effective operations involved in land development, tillage and crop establishment operations.

Specific objectives and competencies

At the completion of this course unit, the student should be able to:

  • Understand the aims and problems associated with farm mechanization.
  • Understand the various operations involved in land clearing and development
  • Safely and effectively operate and maintain a range of soil tillage equipment.
  • Be able to correctly set and operate crop drilling and planting equipment for a range of crops

Reference materials

Suggested activities

  • Visit a mechanized farm in order to observe the main objectives of mechanization or display a video of activities of a mechanized farming operation.
  • Identify the traditional/conventional land clearing implements on display and the various functional components, and demonstrate how they are used in the field.
  • Identify the range of machinery used for land preparation and to know their means of operation and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Students should recognise the characteristics of each of the tillage types.
  • Carry out routine maintenance required of tractor and tillage implements.
  • Identify equipment for crop planting and also describe their mode of operation.
  • Carry out adjustments and maintenance on conventional grain drill and maize planter.

​​​​​​Farm Machinery Design and Construction

Industrial safety [MEP 322]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

Higher National Diploma (HND I)

Course lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to provide the students with an understanding of the principles of engineering design and its application in the design and construction of farm machinery.

General objectives

On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  1. Understand the principles of design and the impact of operational factors on machine components. Recognize engineering principles to be considered in designing machine components.
  2. Understand stresses in mechanical elements. Understand static stresses in mechanical elements; understand dynamic stresses in mechanical elements; recognize critical design stresses for machine components.
  3. Understand materials of construction and their characteristics. Understand the characteristics of various materials used in constructing farm implements; recognize the factors to be considered in the choice of materials for particular function; understand the need to determine suitable sizes and dimensions of component parts of an implement
  4. Understand the design of individual mechanical elements. Understand the need for permanent or detachable connections in the design of individual mechanical elements; explain the advantages of each type of connection e.g. Welded, threaded, bolted, riveted connections.
  5. Understand farm machinery design considerations. Appreciate the various conditions under which farm machinery operates; understand the relationship between operational requirements of farm machinery and design; understand how power requirements of farm machinery influence design.
  6. Know the design and construction of selected farm machinery. Understand the design and construction of essential components of tillage machinery; understand the design and construction of essential components of crop sowing and planting machinery; understand the design and construction of essential components of crop harvesting machinery.

Reference materials

  1. Bello RS, 2012. Farm machinery & mechanization. https://tinyurl.com/y6xtj4bb
  2. Bello R.S. and Bello M.B., 2015. Agricultural Machinery Management. https://tinyurl.com/y3opnsnz
  3. Bello R. S., Saidu MJ, & Andefikir DY, 2019. Agricultural Tillage and planting machinery. https://tinyurl.com/y3u3b6j8
  4. Bello RS. 2019. Essentials of machine elements & design. https://tinyurl.com/y59agc9j

​​Farm Machinery and Mechanization II

Farm Machinery & Mechanization II [ABE 222]

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology

National Diploma (ND I)

Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the principles and practices of crop husbandry and harvesting operations and to equip them with the necessary skills for effective crop machinery operations. This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of assignment sheets and unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy.

Specific objectives and competencies

On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  • Know crop husbandry equipment  and their operations
  • Understand the use crop protection equipment.
  • Understand the use of manure and fertilizer application equipment.
  • Understand the use of crop harvesting equipment.
  • Be able to use horticultural machinery

Reference materials

Suggested activities

  1. Student should identify and describe the various equipment for intercultural operations such as weeding and thinning operations.
  2. Students should identify different types of crop protection used in commercial production.
  3. Students should operate different equipment for the application of fertilizers
  4. Students should recognize different harvesting equipment and their component parts.

​​​​Fruits & Vegetable Processing & Storage

Fruits & Vegetable Processing Storage [HLT 442]

Department of Horticultural & Landscape Technology

Higher National Diploma (HND II)

Course lecturer: Bello R. S.

Course objective

This course is designed to provide the students with a good understanding of the principles and techniques of fruits and vegetables processing storage in order to minimize postharvest losses.

Specific objectives and competencies

At the completion of this course the student should be able to;

  1. Know the pre-harvest conditions that pre-dispose fresh fruits and vegetables to post-harvest deterioration.
  2. Understand tropical environment in relation to storage life of tropical fruits and vegetables.
  3. Know the appropriate stage to harvest tropical fruits and vegetables.
  4. Know the determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables.
  5. Understand the problems of fruits and vegetables within Nigeria and prospects from fresh fruit shipment to overseas markets.
  6. Know methods of minimizing post-losses in tropical fruits and vegetables.
  7. Understand simple technique for the preservation of fruit and vegetables.

Suggested activities

  1. The students are expected to be able to effectively understanding and discussed the followings at the end of this course:
  2. Identify fruits and vegetables and its distinguishing features as well as fruits and vegetables in transit from northern Nigeria to southern Nigeria and vice versa
  3. Identify plant protection measures, the absence of which may lead to pre-disposition of the crop to post-harvest losses
  4. Identify pre-harvest conditions that enhance bruises and cracks in fruits, etc.
  5. Identify the maturity and ripening indices for fruits and vegetables and appropriate time to harvest
  6. Identify the different local and vegetables packaging materials e.g. open bags, baskets, crates etc.
  7. Identify the different transportation methods for fruits and vegetables e.g. train, trailers, lories, bicycles.

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2013: Fruits and Vegetable Technologies: Management options. Pub by Createspace, US. ISBN-13: 978-149-047-910-197-8 URL: https:// www.createspace.com /4329868 June 2013
  • Bello R. S., 2013: Horticultural Machinery: Equipment and safety. Pub by Createspace 7290 B. Investment Drive Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-148-497-487-2 URL:https:/ www.createspace.com /4284225  Sept 2012
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery & Mechanization. Createspace Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-145-632- 876-4. https://www.createspace.com/3497673 June 2012 (388 pages)
  • Bello R. S., Adegbulugbe T. A. and Odey S. O., 2010: Farm Power and Machinery Climax Printers, Enugu Nigeria ISBN: 978-332-2-254-4-3

All available @: http://www.amazon.com/Segun-R.-Bello/e/B008AL6RI0

​Agricultural Tillage ​and Planting Machinery

Tillage and crop planting machinery [ABP 322]

C​ourse L​ecturer: Engr. Bello RS

Goal

This course is designed to enable the students know the use of farm machinery for tillage, planting and fertilizer applications.

General objectives

On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  • Understand classification of machinery for various operations involved in tillage and seedbed preparations. Understand the need for tillage in agriculture, its objectives and the terminologies involved; Distinguish between primary and secondary tillage operations.
  • Understand the operation of primary cultivation implements. Understand the principles of operation of subsoilers; Understand the principles of operation of mouldboard ploughs; Understand the principles of operation of disc ploughs.
  • Understand the operation of secondary tillage implements Understand the use of different drawn implements for secondary tillage; Understand the use of powered implements for secondary tillage.
  • Know the proper care of tillage equipment. Explain the maintenance requirements of tillage equipment e.g. straightening, lubrication, checking for loose nuts and bolts, sharpening of blades etc.; Understand the need for effective repairs of tillage implements.
  • Know various methods of seed planting. Understand the process of seed planting by broadcasting; Understand the process of planting operation using grain drills; Understand the process of planting using precision seeders and planters.
  • Know various types of equipment for applying fertilizers and manures. Understand the methods of applying different fertilizers to crops; Understand the operation and adjustment of fertilizer distributors; Understand the methods of applying farm manures.

​ Introduction to ​Agricultural & Bioenvironmental Engineering 

Agricultural & Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology/ Agricultural Technology

Programme: National Diploma (ND)

​​​Course Lecturer: Bello R. S.

​Course Practical ​Instructors: ​Umahi Okechukwu 

Course goal

This course in designed to enable the students understand the scope of Agricultural Engineering and its application in agricultural (crop, fiber and animal) production.

Course objective

This article provide introductory notes on the general concepts of agricultural and bio-environmental, engineer as relevant to an agricultural technologist who is expected to have a background knowledge of agricultural machine (power sources and machinery, especially operational principles of tractor) selection, operations and maintenance. After completion of this unit, students should be able to describe the factors involved in selecting machinery and make calculations that facilitate the selection of machinery.  This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of assignment sheets and unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy.

Specific objectives and competencies

At the completion of this course, the student should be able to:

  1. Understand the definitions and roles of Agricultural and Bio Environmental Engineering in National Economic Development.
  2. Recognize the role of Professional Organizations and Professional Activities relevant to Agricultural Engineering.
  3. Outline the scope of Agricultural and Bio Environmental Engineering
  4. Know the application of Farm Power and Machinery in Agricultural Production.
  5. Know the application of Soil and Water Engineering in Agricultural Production.
  6. Know the application of Farm Structures in Agricultural Production.
  7. Know the use of Electric Power in Agricultural Production
  8. Know the application of Post harvest Technology in Agricultural Production.

Reference materials

  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Engineering: Principles and Practice (Vol 1).
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Engineering: Principles and Practice (Vol 2).
  • Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery & Mechanization.
  • Bello R. S., 2006: Guide to Agricultural Machinery Maintenance, and Operation Fasmen Communications, Okigwe Nigeria ISBN: 978 - 2986 - 90 – 9 (79 pages)
  • All available @: http://www.amazon.com/Segun-R.-Bello/e/B008AL6RI0

Suggested activities

  1. Locate someone (such as the school, a local business or a farmer) who is planning an equipment purchase and evaluate the situation as to what size of equipment should be obtained, whether it should be rented, purchased or custom hired, what the cost would be per year, etc.
  2. Take an inventory of an average farm in the area to determine just how much money that farm has tied up in machinery.

​ ​​Agricultural Machinery Management

Agricultural & Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology​

​Course title:        ​Agricultural Machinery Management
Course code:         ​ABE 230
Credit unit:        2 units
Lecture duration:     2hrs

Course details:
Course coordinator:     Engr. Bello RS
Email:     segemi2002@fcaishiagu.edu.ng
Office address: Office of the Dean, School of Engineering Technology
Other lecturer: Engr. Uka Nnanna

Course objective
​This course is designed to develop a working understanding of the importance of effective machinery management for efficient agricultural production


Specific objectives and competencies
​On completion of this course, the students should be able to:

1. ​Understand management concepts
2. ​Select appropriate farm machinery for        specific activities.
3. ​Match implements and tractors for       efficient utilization of tractor power.
4. ​Determine field performance and   outputs of individual machines.
5. ​Manage machinery systems for   maximum performance.
6. ​Determine the costs of machinery operations.


Reference materials
​Bello R.S. and M.B. Bello, 2015. Agricultural Machinery Management. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing October 9, 2015 https://www.lap-publishing.com/

Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery & Mechanization. Createspace   Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-145-632-876-4. https://www.createspace.com/3497673 June 2012


Suggested activities
​Locate ​a client(such as the school, a local business or a farmer) who is planning an equipment purchase and evaluate the situation as to what size of equipment should be obtained, whether it should be rented, purchased or custom hired, what the cost would be per year, etc.


Take an inventory of an average farm in the area to determine just how much money that farm has tied up in machinery.


​ ​Farm Power & Machinery Management

Agricultural & Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology​


​Course title:        Farm Power & Machinery Management
Course code:         AEP 422
Credit unit:        2 units
Lecture duration:     2hrs

Course details:
Course coordinator:     Engr. Bello RS
Email:     segemi2002@fcaishiagu.edu.ng
Office address: Office of the Dean, School of Engineering Technology
Other lecturer: Engr. Uka Nnanna

Course objective
This course is designed to give the students an in depth knowledge of the factors involved in the selection, acquisition, and operation of farm power and machinery to enable them to make sound decisions for the effective use of machinery in farm businesses.


Specific objectives and competencies
On completion of this course, the students should be able to: Know the available tractors for farm operations; Understand tractor power requirements for agricultural implements; Understand tractor testing procedures and codes; Evaluate field capacities of various farm machinery; Understand the selection of farm machinery; Understand the economics of farm machinery usage; Understand multi–farm use of farm machinery; carry out machinery management in relation to selected case studies.


Reference materials
​Bello R.S. and M.B. Bello, 2015. Agricultural Machinery Management. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing October 9, 2015 https://www.lap-publishing.com/

Bello R. S., 2012: Agricultural Machinery & Mechanization. Createspace   Charl US. ISBN-13: 978-145-632-876-4. https://www.createspace.com/3497673 June 2012

Bello R. S., Adegbulugbe T. A. and Odey S. O., 2010:  Farm Power and Machinery Climax Printers, Enugu Nigeria   ISBN: 978-332-2-254-4-3

Bello R. S., 2007.  Fundamental Principles of Agricultural Engineering Practice.  Climax Printers, Enugu Nigeria   ISBN- 978-080-015-8 (298 pages)


Suggested activities
Carry our selected studies on equipment needs and cost requirements for a small-scale farm; medium-scale farm; and large-scale farm.


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