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Planting Machinery



Book description

New ideas and developed technologies in agricultural occupation depend to a large extent on scientific research results and diversity which are responsible for increased agricultural production. The dynamic nature of agricultural operations and machine complexity are indices of such scientific research diversity as evident in the wide spread requirements in agricultural operation if increased production must be sustained. Hence, this book presents a most concise research documentation in agricultural soil dynamics, land preparation practices, crop planting operations and machinery required in each operation. In this nine-chapter book, the basic concepts of agricultural soil dynamics, forces acting on traction equipment, soil-machine-plant interactions, various models for predicting forces in earth moving machinery and reactions, the nature of agricultural soils, mechanical behaviour, performance characteristics as well as forces acting on traction machines were presented. Other inclusions are various agricultural practices, tillage practices, and performance characteristics, crop planting machinery, practices, machinery as well as crop maintenance and post-planting operations such as crop thinning, weed control and fertilizer/chemical application and equipment were discussed. Including concepts of safety and maintenance of these machinery.

Table of contents

Acknowledgements. ix

Preface     xiv

CHAPTER ONE    Agricultural Soil-Implement Dynamics. 1​     ​N399.00  ($1)

1.               Introduction. 1

1.1             Mechanical behaviour of agricultural soil 1

1.2             Mechanics of tillage tools. 3

1.3             Soil dynamics and tillage relations. 13

1.4             Soil working performance characteristics. 19

Further reading.. 22

CHAPTER TWO      Soil-Implement Force Dynamics. 24​​​     ​​N399.00  ($1)

2.0             Introduction. 24

2.1             Forces acting on tillage implements. 24

2.2             Forces acting on traction machines (tractors) 33

2.3             Energy balance at machine-soil interface. 35

2.4             Effects of machinery traffic on agricultural soil 39

Further reading.. 42

CHAPTER THREE    Agricultural & Tillage Practices. 44​    ​N399.00  ($1)

3.0             Introduction. 44

3.1             Mechanized agricultural practices. 44

3.2             Land/seedbed preparation. 47

3.3             Tillage definitions. 48

3.4             Agricultural tillage practices. 49

3.5             Tillage practices. 51

3.5.1         Conventional tillage. 51

3.5.2         Conservation tillage. 56

3.6             Tillage operations. 61

Further reading.. 74

CHAPTER FOUR       Tillage Machinery. 77​        ​N399.00  ($1)

4.0             Introduction. 77

4.1             Tillage tools (implements) 78

4.2             Conventional tillage implements. 78

4.2.1         Primary tillage implements. 78

4.2.1.1      Plough implements. 79

4.2.1.2      Tine and blade implements. 107

4.2.1.3      Rotary implements. 113

4.2.1.4      Modified/hybrid implements. 115

4.2.2         Secondary tillage implements. 119

4.2.2.1      Drawn implements. 121

4.2.2.2      Disc implements. 122

4.2.2.3      Tine and blade implements. 127

4.2.2.4      Rotary implements. 133

4.2             Conservation tillage equipment 142

Further reading.. 142

CHAPTER FIVE     Crop Planting and Establishment 145​  ​  ​N399.00  ($1)

5                 Introduction. 145

5.1             Crop planting.. 145

5.2             Methods of crop planting.. 148

5.2.1         Crop planting on flat surfaces. 148

5.2.2         Crop planting on bed /ridged surfaces and heaps. 150

5.3             Crop transplanting.. 157

5.4             Germination tests and plant establishment procedures. 165

Further reading.. 170

CHAPTER SIX    Crop Planting Machinery. 172​    ​N399.00  ($1)

6.0             Introduction. 172

6.1             Functional requirement for crop planting equipment 172

6.2             Crop planting equipment on flat surface. 173

6.3             Crop planting equipment on beds and ridges. 206

6.4             Equipment for seedling transplant 215

Further reading.. 222

CHAPTER SEVEN     Post-planting Operations and Machinery. 224      ​N399.00  ($1)

7                 Introduction. 224

7.1             Thinning operations. 224

7.2             Crop establishment and equipment 235

7.2.1         Weed control and management equipment 235

7.3             Fertilizer application techniques. 258

7.3.1         Machinery for injection of dry fertilizers. 259

7.3.2         Machinery for injection of liquid fertilizer 263

7.3.3         Machinery for liquid fertilizer application. 265

7.4             Chemical application equipment 267

7.4.1         Dry chemical application and equipment 268

7.4.2         Liquid chemical application equipment 272

7.4.3         Chemigation. 278

Further reading.. 279

CHAPTER EIGHT    Guides to Machinery Safety. 281​      N399.00  ($1)

8                 Introduction. 281

8.1             Machinery safety. 281

8.2             Causes of machinery hazards. 282

8.3             Safe use of machinery. 283

8.4             Related hazard sources in agricultural machinery. 284

8.5             Best safety practices in operating agricultural machinery. 284

Further reading.. 285

CHAPTER NINE      Agricultural Machinery Maintenance. 286​      N399.00  ($1)

9                 Introduction. 286

9.1             Machinery maintenance. 286

9.2             Maintenance requirements for agricultural equipment 289

9.2.1         Maintenance and adjustment of plough implement 292

9.2.2         Maintenance and adjustment of harrow implement 296

9.2.3         Maintenance of PTO operated implement 298

9.3             Maintenance and adjustment of seeders & planters. 302

9.4             Maintenance of chemical spraying equipment 307

9.5             Sprayer calibration. 310

Further reading.. 318

Notes     321

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